Pulse width modulation (PWM) is an easy and cheap (subsequently well-liked!) option to implement average efficiency (e.g., 8 bit decision low velocity) digital to analog conversion, however improvising low cost DACs isn’t the one factor PWM can do. For instance, Determine 1’s circuit illustrates utilizing PWM to digitally set the analog acquire of a flexible, sturdy, excessive (1 MΩ) enter impedance, buffered output, DC enter stage over a ~16 bit = 65280:1 = -48 dB to +48 dB attenuation/acquire vary.
Determine 1 A PWM managed amplifier/attenuator DC enter stage.
Right here’s the way it works: A 1 MHz, 8 bit (T = 256 µs interval) PWM management sign runs three synchronous HC4053 SPDT CMOS switches designated U1a, U1b, and U1c. Its obligation cycle = G/T = 0.4% to 99.6% as G = 1 to 255 µs.
U1b acts as a programmable enter attenuator by steering the I = Vin/R1 enter present alternately to floor or op-amp A1’s summing level, creating an enter scale issue of Vin/R1(G/T) that’s programmable between close to zero, Vin/R1/256 (G = 1 µs), to close unity, Vin/R1/255/256 (G = 255 µs). Moreover, due to the near-zero summing-point-potential maintained at U1 pin15 by present steering, the accommodated Vin voltage vary may be very extensive—restricted largely by R1’s axial voltage stand up to functionality which is often 200 V for a ¼ W axial lead 1 MΩ resistor. Concurrently, the millivolt vary sign ranges maintained throughout U1b’s swap parts (a number of orders of magnitude lower than datasheet take a look at situations) scale back swap associated leakage currents to << 1 nA; thus, minimizing leakage-related offset voltages to negligible ranges regardless of the megohm R1.
In the meantime, U1a is working to selectively steer present suggestions from A1’s output to its summing level by way of R2 with a programmable issue of (1 – G/T), yielding a internet V/I acquire of
–R2/ (1 – G/T), whereas sustaining comparable leakage-minimizing millivolt voltage differentials throughout U1a’s switches.
The web impact makes A1’s voltage acquire = -(R2/R1)(G/T)/(1 – G/T) = -(G/T)/(1 – G/T).
As G varies from 1 µs to 255 µs, there’s the acknowledged –(1/256)/(1 – 1/256) to -(255/256)/(1 – 255/256) = -1/255 to -256 = 96 dB acquire vary, however what about that pesky minus signal and notorious PWM ripple?
Each sign inversion and ripple-suppression are carried out by the pattern and maintain perform applied by U1c and A2, yielding a last ripple-free: Vout/Vin = (G/T)/(1 – GT) as graphed linearly in Determine 2 and logarithmically in Determine 3.
Determine 2 The linear acquire plot (Pink = 0 to five and Blue = 0 to 255).
Determine 3 The log acquire plot.
The optimistic (Vdd) and detrimental (Vee) energy rails are non-critical and noise-insensitive however ideally must be at the very least roughly symmetrical and can usually be +5 V and -5 V, respectively. Whole present draw is lower than 2 mA. Each C1 and C3 must be low-leakage sorts, polystyrene is recommended. Response time to an enter or acquire set step is considerably acquire dependent however is often ~2 ms. Observe that the R1C1 time fixed is ~4T = 1 ms. Neither is strictly what you’d name lightning quick, however we’re in spite of everything speaking about PWM!
Stephen Woodward’s relationship with EDN’s DI column goes again fairly a methods. In all, a complete of 64 submissions have been accepted since his first contribution was printed in 1974.
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